PM2.5 Characterization and Source-Receptor Relations in South Carolina

D. David Calhoun, Lynn G. Salmon, James J. Schauer, and Christos S. Christoforou
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science 2 (2003) 441-451.


Ambient PM2.5 aerosol samples were collected at three sites at Clemson University during January and June of 2001. The PM2.5 mass concentrations averaged 12.2 ug/m3 in January and 21.2 ug/m3 in June. Chemical characterization of the samples identified an average of 99% of the fine particulate matter collected in January and 96% in June. The primary ingredients of the PM2.5 aerosol were organic carbon compounds (49% in January and 44% in June) and sulfates (21% in January and 33% in June). Total heavy metals on average contributed 0.3% of the fine aerosol mass. Source-receptor reconciliation was completed for the fine aerosol using a chemical mass balance model, Chemical Mass Balance v. 8 (CMB8). In January, approximately 105% of the measured mass was accounted for, and the major sources were soil dust, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium nitrate. In June, an average of 80% of the measured mass was accounted for, and the major sources were the same as in January, except that the contribution of ammonium nitrate was negligible. A composite source of organic compounds that includes gasoline vehicle exhaust, meat cooking, cigarette smoke, and wood burning, was one of the major sources for both June and January seasons.

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